OUR Dedicated experts //
Mark d. Miller, MD
Course Director Dr. Mark D. Miller is the S. Ward Casscells Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery at the University of Virginia and Team Physician for James Madison University. He is a distinguished graduate of the US Air Force Academy and the Uniformed Services University. Dr. Miller, a retired Air Force Colonel, completed his orthopaedic residency at Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center and a fellowship in Sports Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh. He has authored over 100 peer-reviewed papers and two dozen textbooks, including the “best-selling” Review of Orthopaedics, now in its 6th Edition. Dr. Miller is the Deputy Editor for Sports Medicine for the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery and is the Founder and Director of the Orthopaedic Review Course that bears his name. Dr. Miller is married and has four grown children.
James Browne, MD
Dr. James Browne is an Assistant Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery and the Medical Director of the Orthopaedic Clinics at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia. He is a graduate of Washington and Lee University and the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. He completed his orthopaedic surgery residency at Duke University Medical Center and a fellowship in adult reconstruction at the Mayo Clinic. He is the author of several peer reviewed publications and book chapters on hip and knee arthroplasty and has been invited to speak nationally and internationally. He is an active member of AAHKS and is on the editorial board of the Journal of Arthroplasty. Dr. Browne is married with two children.
MARC J. RICHARD, MD
Marc Richard, MD is an Associate Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery at Duke University in the Division of Hand, Upper Extremity and Microvascular Surgery. He is originally from Cumberland, Rhode Island and graduated from Stanford University with a degree in Human Biology. He then attended the University of Vermont College of Medicine and performed his orthopaedic surgery residency at Boston University Medical Center. After completing a fellowship in Hand and Upper Extremity surgery at Duke University, he joined the faculty in 2007. Dr. Richard’s clinical focus includes upper extremity trauma, comprehensive elbow care, and osteonecrosis of the femoral head in young patients. His additional specific interests include elbow arthroplasty, elbow injuries in young throwing athletes, and peripheral nerve injuries. He has served as the Co-Director of Upper Extremity Trauma at Duke. He is also the Co-Director of the Free Vascularized Fibular Graft Program at Duke and contributes clinically to both the Trauma and Hip Preservation Divisions. He is the Director of the Hand and Upper Extremity Fellowship Program and is a past recipient of the Duke Orthopaedic Surgery Faculty Teaching Award. Dr. Richard is also a Past-President of the North Carolina Society for Surgery of the Hand. Dr. Richard is married with two children. He enjoys spending time with his family and is an avid Red Sox and Patriots fan.
SANJ KAKAR, MD
Sanj Kakar, MD is Professor of Orthopaedics and Vice Chair of the Clinical Practice Committee within the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Clinical Practice Committee at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. A graduate of St. Bartholomew’s and The Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, he received his surgical training at University College London, The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital and The Royal Free, before completing his Orthopaedic Residency at Boston University, Boston. After receiving his Master’s in Business Administration from Babson College, he completed his Hand Surgery fellowship at Mayo Clinic. He is Board Certified by the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery and the American Society for Surgery of the Hand. He is a specialist in disorders of the hand and wrist, in particular, arthroscopy, complex wrist reconstruction, trauma and tumors of the upper extremity. He is a surgeon scientist and is Principal Investigator for a molecular biology and tissue engineering research laboratory specializing in the creation of “neoligaments” for wrist reconstruction, studying the role of 4 dimensional CT scanning on wrist kinematics and conducting molecular studies on the pathogenesis and treatment of Dupuytren’s disease and biology of fracture repair. Dr Kakar has authored over 80 peer reviewed scientific papers, 25 book chapters and editor of 2 books pertaining to Orthopaedic Oncology in the Hand and Wrist. He is principal investigator on several translational research grants, received the Marshall Urist Young Investigator award from the Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons, a member of the Emerging Leaders Program and a recipient of the North American Traveling Fellowship and American British Canadian Fellowship by the American Orthopaedic Association, an active member within the American Association of Hand Surgeons and was the Chairman of the Residents and Fellows meeting at the American Society of Surgery of The Hand in 2014.
MARC DEHART, MD
Dr. Marc M. DeHart is a partner in private practice in the largest orthopaedic group in Austin, Texas – Texas Orthopedics Sports and Rehabilitation Associates. He is an Assistant Clinical Professor for both the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation at the University of Texas Medical Branch and the Department of Surgery at the Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine Round Rock Campus. Dr. DeHart received a Biology Degree from the College of Natural Sciences at the University of Texas at Austin. He earned his Medical Degree from the Medical College of Virginia. Dr. DeHart completed his Orthopaedic Residency at the Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center in San Antonio, Texas. While on active duty with the United States Air Force, Dr. DeHart served as an F-16 Flight Surgeon for the 69th Tactical Fighter Squadron. After completing a Fellowship in Adult Hip and Knee Reconstructive Surgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, he returned to San Antonio where, as a Clinical Assistant Professor of the Department of Orthopaedics at the Health Science Center in San Antonio, he instructed residents at both the Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center and the University of Texas Health Science Center. Dr. DeHart serves on the Editorial Board for the Journal of Arthroplasty. Dr. DeHart is married and has four grown children.
MARK ERICKSON, MD
Dr. Mark Erickson is the Chairman of Orthopaedic Surgery at Children’s Hospital Colorado and Associate Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery at The University of Colorado School of Medicine. Dr. Erickson serves as the Fellowship Director for the Pediatric Orthopaedic Fellowship Program at Children’s Hospital Colorado. Dr. Erickson completed his orthopaedic residency at Wright State University and his fellowship in pediatric orthopaedic surgery at Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children. Dr. Erickson recently received his Master’s in Medical Management from the University of Southern California. Dr. Erickson lives in the Denver area and is married and has two children.
THOMAS M. SCHALLER, MD
Dr. Thomas Schaller is the Medical Director of orthopaedic trauma services at Greenville Health System and Associate Professor for the Department of Orthopaedics at USC School of Medicine, Greenville. Dr. Schaller received his medical degree from the University of Illinois, Chicago and completed his residency in orthopaedic surgery at Michigan State University/Kalamazoo Center for Medical Studies. Following his residency, Dr. Schaller completed an orthopaedic trauma fellowship at the Carolinas Medical Center in Charlotte, North Carolina. Dr. Schaller’s career has been focused on resident education in conjunction with his clinical practice of orthopaedic trauma. He is a faculty member for AO Trauma and a recipient of the organization’s Howard Rosen Award. As an active member of both the AO and the Orthopaedic Trauma Association, Dr. Schaller has enjoyed teaching at many resident courses affiliated with these organizations over the last ten years. Dr. Schaller has been honored with awards for excellence in resident education at both MSU/KCMS and USC Greenville.
STEVEN L. HADDAD, MD
Dr. Steven L. Haddad is an Associate Professor of Clinical Orthopaedic Surgery in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at the University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, and the Division Head of Foot and Ankle Surgery in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at NorthShore University HealthCare. He serves on the board of directors for the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) as Vice President, has chaired multiple committees including the Education and Occupational Health Committees, and has served as program chair for the winter and summer meetings of the AOFAS. Dr. Haddad lends his expertise an assistant editor for the Surgical Strategies section of the journal Foot & Ankle International and is an Associate Editor for that same journal. He serves as a reviewer for Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research (CORR) and the Journal of the AAOS. He is foot and ankle section editor for the Academy’s patient information Web site, OrthoInfo; serves as chair of the AAOS Foot and Ankle Program Subcommittee; and is a member of the Academy’s Continuing Medical Education Committee. For 2012, he is Chair of the combined AAOS/AOFAS International Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Meeting, and Co-Chair of the AAOS Total Ankle Arthroplasty Meeting. He is editing the AAOS Total Ankle Arthroplasty Monograph, as well as the upcoming Foot and Ankle Clinics on Total Ankle Arthroplasty. After earning his medical degree from The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore, Dr. Haddad completed his orthopaedic surgical residency at Georgetown University Hospital in Washington, D.C. He completed fellowship training in foot and ankle surgery at Union Memorial Hospital in Baltimore. He has been the recipient of a number of awards, including the James K. Stack Teaching Award from Northwestern University and The Roger Mann Award for an outstanding clinical research project to advance foot and ankle surgery in the United States. Dr. Haddad is married and has 3 children.
MACALUS V. HOGAN, MD
MaCalus V. Hogan is an Assistant Professor in the Division of Foot and Ankle Surgery at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. With a passion for education, Dr. Hogan is a past AAOS Alan M. Levine, MD Scholar in Graduate Medical Education and AAOS Annual Educator’s Course alumnus. He serves on the Board of Directors of the J. Robert Gladden Orthopaedic Soceity, and the AAOS Candidate, Resident, and Fellow Committee. He is a member of American Orthopaedic Association’s Emerging Leaders program and serves as the senior editor of the AAOS Resident’s Newsletter. Dr. Hogan earned his Bachelor of Science degree from Xavier University, received his M.D. from Howard University College of Medicine, and completed his orthopaedic surgery residency training at The University of Virginia. He is a 2013 graduate of the Foot and Ankle Fellowship at the Hospital for Special Surgery and New York Presbyterian Hospital – Weill Cornell Medical College. Dr. Hogan and his research team have received a number of awards, including being named New Investigator Recognition Award Finalist by the Orthopaedic Research Society. Recently, Dr. Hogan was the recipient of the AOFAS 2013 J. Leonard Goldner Award for the most outstanding basic science research by a society member. Dr. Hogan is married to a physician and has a daughter.
GINGER E. HOLT, MD
Dr. Ginger E. Holt is an Associate Professor in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Vanderbilt Medical Center in Nashville, Tennessee. Dr. Holt completed her Orthopaedic Residency at Vanderbilt and Fellowships in MSK Oncology at Mt Sinai Hospital in Toronto and Adult reconstruction in Denver, Colorado. Dr. Holt is the Residency program director at Vanderbilt and was recently honored as an AOA-ABC traveling fellow (2011). Dr. Holt has over 50 peer-reviewed publications and was a member of the 2011 Orthopaedic Self-Assessment exam writing committee. Dr. Holt enjoys live music, pop culture and reality television shows.
MICHAEL LECROY, MD
Dr. Michael LeCroy is the Director of Orthopaedic Trauma Services and the Chief of Quality & Safety for Surgical Services at Mission Health System in Asheville, NC. He completed his undergraduate work at Duke University and received his medical degree from Duke University School of Medicine. Dr. LeCroy then completed his orthopaedic residency at Duke University Medical Center before receiving his orthopaedic trauma fellowship training at the University of Maryland Shock Trauma Center in Baltimore. Dr. LeCroy was an Assistant Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery at the University of North Carolina before moving to his current position in Asheville in 2003. Dr. LeCroy’s clinical practice is devoted to the acute treatment of musculoskeletal injuries and post-traumatic extremity reconstructive surgery. He also has a particular interest in quality and safety initiatives in surgery. He has authored papers published in peer-reviewed journals, lectured on musculoskeletal injuries nationally and internationally, and serves on the AAOS Trauma Program Committee. Dr. LeCroy has been a proud member of the Miller Review Course faculty since 1999. He lives with his wife, Allison, and their children in the beautiful mountains of western North Carolina.
EDWARD MCPHERSON, MD
Dr. Edward James McPherson is the Director of Orthopaedic Surgery at the L.A. Orthopaedic Institute in Los Angeles, California . He is board certified in orthopaedic surgery and specializes in total knee replacement surgery and total hip replacement surgery using the minimally invasive technique. He has published numerous articles on his specialty interests and has authored chapters on periprosthetic total knee infection and adult reconstruction in medical textbooks. He has also co-authored book chapters on hydroxyapatite coatings in orthopaedic surgery and cemented total knee replacement. Dr. McPherson is also very active in research. He has served as either principal investigator or co-investigator in 19 studies, several of which are still in progress. Dr. McPherson is also a clinical investigator for the ceramic-on-ceramic acetabular system, which is an FDA investigational device. He has been an invited lecturer to national and international medical conferences and symposia, speaking on his specialty interests. He is also one of the designers of the Vanguard Knee System and the Medallion Revision Hip System. Dr. McPherson is a member of The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, The American College of Surgeons, The Musculoskeletal Infection Society, The Societe Internationale Chirgue and Orthopaedic Traumatologie (SICOT), The Charleston County Medical Society, and The Association of Military Surgeons of the United States.
DEREK MOORE, MD
Dr. Derek Moore is a practicing orthopaedic spine surgeon and the founder of the educational website Orthobullets.com. He graduated from the University of California, Berkeley, where he studied Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and published on his research on the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1. He graduated from Stanford Medical School, where his research focused on applying new technology to medical education. Following medical school, he worked as a consultant for The Boston Consulting Group for two years before returning to complete his residency in orthopaedics at Columbia University Medical Center, and his fellowship in spine surgery at the Hospital for Special Surgery. He currently shares his time between his clinical practice in Dartmouth, MA, and acting as the chief executive office for Orthobullets.com. He has a strong interest in resident advocacy and international medical work.
KEVIN D. PLANCHER, MD
Kevin D. Plancher, MD, MS, FACS, FAAOS, is a leading orthopaedic surgeon and sports medicine expert with extensive practice in knee, shoulder, elbow and hand injuries. Dr. Plancher is an Associate Clinical Professor in Orthopaedics at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in NY. He is on the Editorial Review Board of the Journal of American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, the American Journal of Medicine and Sports. and the American Journal of Orthopedics. Dr. Plancher graduated from Trinity College with a B.S. and majored in Biochemistry and Chemistry. He then attended Georgetown University School of Medicine, where he received an M.S. in Physiology and an M.D. from their school of medicine (cum laude). He did his residency at Harvard’s combined Orthopaedic program and a Fellowship at the Steadman-Hawkins clinic in Vail, Colorado where he studied shoulder and knee reconstruction. Dr. Plancher continued his relationship with the Clinic for the next six years as a Consultant. Dr. Plancher has served as team physician for many athletic teams, including high school, college and national championship teams. Dr. Plancher is an attending physician at Beth Israel Hospital in New York City, Stamford Hospital in Stamford, CT and Northern Westchester Hospital in Mount Kisco, NY and has offices in Manhattan and Cos Cob, Connecticut. Dr. Plancher lectures extensively domestically and internationally on issues related to Orthopaedic procedures and injury management. From 2001 through 2011, Dr. Plancher was named among the Top Doctors in the New York Metro area. He has been appointed the New York State Representative for the Council of Delegates to the American Academy of Orthopaedic surgeons. For the past six years Dr. Plancher has received the Order of Merit (Magnum Cum Laude) for distinguished Philanthropy in the Advancement of Orthopaedic Surgery by the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation. In 2001, he founded “The Orthopaedic Foundation for Active Lifestyles“, a non-profit foundation focused on maintaining and enhancing the physical well-being of active individuals through the development and promotion of research and supporting technologies.
JEREMY K. RUSH, MD
Jeremy K. Rush, MD FAAP is a pediatric orthopaedic surgeon with extensive practice in pediatric and adolescent sports injuries, fractures, foot and ankle deformities, and spinal deformity. Dr. Rush serves as Chief of Pediatric Orthopaedics at Brooke Army Medical Center in San Antonio, TX. Dr. Rush is an Assistant Professor of Surgery at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, F. Edward Hebert School of Medicine in Bethesda, MD. Dr. Rush graduated from Texas A&M University with a B.A. in Biology. He then attended the Texas A&M University System College of Medicine, where he received an M.D. and graduated with honors. He was a member of the Alpha Omega Alpha honor society during medical school. He then completed his orthopaedic surgery residency at Brooke Army Medical Center and a subsequent pediatric orthopaedic fellowship at the Campbell Clinic/University of Tennessee in Memphis, TN. Dr. Rush is an attending physician at Brooke Army Medical Center and the Baptist Medical System in San Antonio, TX. Dr. Rush has lectured extensively and published in the peer-reviewed literature on issues related to pediatric orthopaedic surgery. He is a fellow of the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery as well as the American Academy of Pediatrics and is active in the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, the Pediatric Orthopaedic Soceity of North America, the Society of Military Orthopaedic Surgeons, and the Pediatric Research in Sports Medicine Society. He has served on numerous national committees within these organizations. As an active duty Army orthopaedic surgeon, Dr. Rush has provided orthopaedic care for critically injured children in the forward deployed and austere setting while deployed with the 14th Combat Support Hospital at Camp Bastion, Afghanistan. Additionally, he has served as mission commander for a Pediatric Orthopaedic Humanitarian Mission to Tegucigalpa, Honduras, and has also served as volunteer faculty with CURE in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. He is a recipient of the Bronze Star Medal, the Army Commendation Medal, the Army Achievement Medal (with Oak Leaf Cluster), the Global War on Terror Service Medal, the NATO Medal, and the Afghanistan Campaign Medal (with one star).
FRANCIS H. SHEN, MD
Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery at the University of Virginia. He is also the Division Head of Spine, Director of the Spine Fellowship, and Co-Director of the Spine Center. He completed his Orthopaedic residency at the University of Virginia and his fellowship training in adult and pediatric spine surgery in Chicago at the Rush University Combined Fellowship and the Shriners Hospital for Children. He serves on the Editorial Board for The Spine Journal, SPINE, the European Spine Journal, and SpineLine. He has received best paper and young investigator awards from multiple organizations including the OREF, North American Spine Society, Cervical Spine Research Society, Scoliosis Research Society, AO Foundation, and Orthopaedic Trauma Association. His research grants have extended beyond orthopaedic societies to include funding from the American Cancer Society and the National Osteoporosis Foundation. Dr. Shen has over 150 peer review articles and has authored several textbooks. He was a previous NASS and SRS traveling fellow.
F. WINSTON GWATHMEY JR, MD
Dr. Gwathmey joined the Sports Medicine Division of the University of Virginia Department of Orthopaedic Surgery in 2013. After completing his Orthopaedic Surgery residency training at UVA, he underwent fellowship training in Sports Medicine and Shoulder Surgery at Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School. In Boston, he was an assistant team pysician for the New England Patriots and also worked closely with the medical staff for the Boston Red Sox and Boston Bruins. Dr. Gwathmey subsequently obtained additional hip arthroscopy training in Nashville, TN, with Dr. Thomas Byrd. Dr. Gwathmey specializes in Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy of the Shoulder, Hip, and Knee. He is a team physician for UVA and James Madison University athletics as well as numerous high school teams. He is also active in medical student and resident education winning numerous teaching awards.. His research interests include clinical outcomes after shoulder, hip, and knee arthroscopy, biomechanical analysis of the hip and knee joint, and the natural history of femoroacetabular impingement. Dr. Gwathmey lives in the Charlottesville area with his wife, Kelly, daughter, Cate, and son, Robert.
STEPHEN THOMPSON, MD
Stephen Thompson, MD, MEd, FRCSC is the cooperating associate professor of sports medicine at the University of Maine and a sports medicine orthopaedic surgeon at Eastern Maine Medical Center. He completed his bachelor’s degree in physiology and master’s degree in medical education at the University of Toronto. He then traveled the world and ultimately graduated from Sydney Medical School with honors. Dr. Thompson completed his residency in orthopaedics at the University of Maryland/R. Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Institute program. He then completed his first sports medicine fellowship at the Fowler-Kennedy Sports Medicine Clinic in London, Ontario and then his second at the Oakville Sports Injury Clinic in Oakville, Ontario. Dr. Thompson is a recognized expert in sports medicine. He is the Co-Editor-in-Chief of the widely used and highly respected reference textbook DeLee and Drez’s Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. Dr. Thompson has spent a significant time studying medical education and standardized testing. He has applied this knowledge in his role as the Co-Editor-in-Chief of Miller’s Review of Orthopaedics, 6th edition as well as the 7th edition of Miller’s Review of Orthopaedics. He has also written the Handbook of Splinting and Casting. He is the co-founder and co-director of the Miller Review Course Part II: Just In Case. Dr. Thompson’s clinical interests include shoulder instability and knee ligamentous injuries. His research primarily focuses on anterior shoulder instability.
In Sok Yi, MD
Dr. In Sok Yi brings a wealth of knowledge and clinical expertise within the field of hand and upper extremity surgery to his patients. Dr. Yi earned his medical degree with distinction from the University School of Medicine, completing his internship and residencies through the same system. He then moved into a prestigious hand and upper extremity fellowship at the University of New Mexico and its affiliated hospitals. He stayed at the University of New Mexico as an Assistant Professor in the department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Division of Hand Surgery from 1998-2000, eventually moving to Denver to join Hand Surgery Associates in 2000. He acts as both a Clinical Assistant Professor within the Orthopaedics Department of the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center and a preceptor to medical students from Rocky Vista University of Osteopathic Medicine. He received his board certification through the America Board of Orthopaedic Surgery in 2000, completed his Certificate for Added Qualifications in Surgery of the Hand (CAQSH) in 2001, and completed his board recertification in hand surgery in 2009. Dr. Yi is on staff at many metro Denver hospitals and facilities, including Porter Adventist Hospital, Sky Ridge Medical Center, Littleton Adventist Hopsital, Rose Medical Center, the Medical Center of Aurora, Centennial Medical Center, and Parker Adventist Hospital. He maintains an active presence within the American Society for Surgery of the Hand and the American Academy for Orthopaedic Surgeons. His clinical skills, as well as his contributions to continuing medical education through ongoing lectures and publications on a national level, earned him the distinction of being named one of 5280 Magazine’s Top Doctors in 2007.
Vikas Patel, MD
Dr. Vikas Patel serves as the Chief of Orthopaedic Spine Surgery at the University of Colorado. Dr. Patel earned his Bachelor’s degree in Mechanical Engineering and worked as an engineer before earning both a Masters of Arts and Doctor of Medicine degrees at Washington University in St. Louis. His orthopaedic spine surgery training took place at the University of California (San Francisco) and St. John’s Hospital in Santa Monica. Dr. Patel’s research interests include spinal non-fusion technologies, cervical and lumbar disc replacement, dynamic stabilization, alternative bone graft materials for fusion, minimally invasive surgical techniques, computer-assisted surgery, stem cell therapies, spinal biologics, spinal biomechanics, and the evaluation of pain. Dr. Patel is a member of multiple professional organizations and has received numerous awards and recognition for his many contributions to Orthopaedic Spine research, clinical practice, and surgery.
Christopher J. Kleck, MD
Dr. Christopher J. Kleck is one of the newer members of five Orthopaedic Spine Surgeons in the Department of Orthopaedics at the University of Colorado. He trained at the University of Arizona and completed a fellowship in 2013 at The University of Colorado in Spine and completed a Traveling Fellowship in Lyon, France, prior to joining the University of Colorado Spine Division. He has an interest in education at every level and was a high school teacher prior to entering the field of medicine. He currently serves as the Spine Fellowship Co-Director, the Associate Residency Program Director as well as the Assistant Director for Medical Student Education. In his spine practice, he and others engage in continuous evaluation of adult spinal deformity patients and their outcomes. This ranges from the non-operative treatment to pre/post-operative planning and outcomes measures. The practice is currently involved in several studies looking at global alignment, pelvic parameters, and the spine itself as well as techniques to allow for more precise implementation of surgical plans. Dr. Kleck is a member of the following professional organizations: American Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS), North American Spine Society (NASS), Colorado Orthopaedic Society, Clinical Orthopedics Society, International Society for the Advancement of Spine Surgery (ISASS), SICOT International, and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS).